My research interests are computer vision and fuzzy set theory. I particularly focus on **image/video content analysis**, that enables automatic analyzing of image/video to detect and determine spatial and temporal events. Potential applications include visual surveillance, robots, entertainments etc. I was the founding Chair for the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS) Malaysia chapter, the organising chair for ACPR in 2015, and general chair for VCIP in 2013. I am a Senior Member of IEEE, a Chartered Engineer and a Member of IET.

### PhD opportunities

I am always interested to hear from prospective research students. Scholarships are available from time to time, contact me to enquire.

### News

**Toward Interpretable Deep Learning via Fuzzy Logic**at IJCAI-ECAI'18, Stockholm, Sweden.

**Workshop on Interpretable & Reasonable Deep Learning and its Applications (IReDLiA)**at IJCAI-ECAI'18, Stockholm, Sweden.

**ICDAR'17**, Kyoto, Japan.

**"Human Motion Sensing and Recognition: A Fuzzy Qualitative Approach"**is now available.

## Research

#### Deep Learning:

#### Visual Surveillance:

#### Image Captioning using Phrase-based Hierarchical LSTM Model

Invited Talk at Nvidia AI ConferenceSlides (PDF)

*
This invited talk was presented at Nvidia A.I. Conference, Singapore. The talk highlights how image captioning can be used to assist visual impairment society.
*

#### Computer Vision: A Computational Intelligence Perspective

Tutorial at FUZZ-IEEE/WCCIFUZZ2017 | WCCI2016 Part I | WCCI2016 Part II

*
How modern computer vision (CV) research and possible directions, tools and novel ideas that the computational intelligence (CI) community may contribute.
*

## Selected Publications

### 2018

#### Granular-based Dense Crowd Density Estimation

V.J. Kok and C.S. ChanMultedia Tools and Applications

doi

*
Study crowd counting using the concept and principles of granular computing.
*

#### Numerical Solutions of Fuzzy Differential Equations by an Efficient Runge-Kutta Method with Generalized Differentiability

A. Ahmadian, S. Salahshour, C.S. Chan and D. BaleanuFuzzy Sets and Systems

doi

*
Study an extended fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to approximate the solutions of first-order fuzzy differential equations using a generalized characterization theorem.
*

### 2017

#### Total-Text: A Comprehensive Dataset for Scene Text Detection and Recognition

C.K. Ch'ng and C.S. ChanICDAR (Oral, Acceptance rate: 52/409 ~ 12.7%.)

pdf | arXiv (extended ver.) | slide | dataset

*
To facilitate a new text detection research, we introduce the Total-Text dataset, which is more comprehensive than the existing text datasets. Total-Text consists of 1555 images with more than 3 different text orientations, one of a kind.
*

#### How Deep Learning Extracts and Learns Leaf Features for Plant Classification

S.H. Lee, C.S. Chan, S. Mayo and P. RemagninoPattern Recognition

pdf | github | dataset | webpage

*
Study how deep learning can be used in plant classification. Two public leaf datasets - MalayaKew and Flavia are employed.
*

#### GrCS: Granular Computing Based Crowd Segmentation

V.J. Kok and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics

pdf | webpage

*
Study crowd segmentation using the concept and principles of granular computing.
*

#### HGO-CNN: Hybrid Generic-Organ Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Organ Plant Classification

S.H. Lee, Y.L. Chang, C.S. Chan and P. RemagninoICIP

pdf | poster | github | webpage

*
Introduce a hybrid generic-organ CNN, which takes into account both organ and generic information for plant classification. State-of-the-art results in PlantClef2015 with Image-centered score = 0.69 and Observation score = 0.717.
*

#### Fractional Differential Systems: A Fuzzy Solution based on Operational Matrix of Shifted Chebyshev Polynomials and its Applications

A. Ahmadian, S. Salahshour and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems

*
Introduce a suitable way to approximate a fuzzy solution for linear FFDEs. As applications, it can be used for fractional differential equation models under uncertainty encountered in engineering and physical phenomena (i.e., viscoelasticity, oscillations, and resistor-capacitor (RC) circuits).
*

### 2016

#### phi-LSTM: A Phrase-based Hierarchical LSTM Model for Image Captioning

Y.H. Tan and C.S. ChanACCV (Acceptance rate: 143/590 ~ 24%)

pdf | arXiv (extended ver.) | poster

*
Build an image captioning system based on phrase.
*

#### A Deep Convolutional Network for Fine-art Paintings Classification

W.R. Tan, C.S. Chan, H. Aguirre and K. TanakaICIP

pdf | supp. material | poster | github | dataset

*
Preliminary study on artwork classification using AlexNet.
*

#### Early Detection of Human Actions - A Hybrid Approach

E. Vats and C.S. ChanApplied Soft Computing

*
Study a classifer that is capable to recognize human action when only partial action sample is seen.
*

#### Fuzzy Qualitative Human Model for Viewpoint Identification

C.H. Lim and C.S. ChanNeural Computing and Applications

*
A view-invariant human model based on Poisson and fuzzy qualitative reasoning.
*

#### Crowd Behavior Analysis: A Review where Physics meets Biology

V.J. Kok, M.K. Lim and C.S. ChanNeurocomputing

*
A crowd behavior analysis survey with 180 references.
*

#### Orthogonal Planar Search (OPS) for Coronary Artery Centerline Extraction

S. Tang and C.S. ChanSignal, Image and Video Processing

*
Investigation of orthogonal planar search for coronary artery centerline extraction from computed tomography angiography.
*

### 2015

#### Zero-Shot Object Recognition System based on Topic Model

W.L. Hoo and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems

pdf | webpage

*
Zero-shot learning based on topic model. Result on AwA Dataset = 49.65%.
*

#### Deep-Plant: Plant Identification with Convolutional Neural Networks

S.H. Lee, C.S. Chan, P. Wilkin and P. RemagninoICIP (Oral)

pdf | github | dataset | webpage

*
Study convolutional and deconvolutional network to understand plantation. A new leaf dataset (MalayaKew) is proposed.
*

#### An Improved BK Sub-Triangle Product Approach for Scene Classification

E. Vats, C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanJournal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems

pdf | webpage

*
A preliminary study on early human action recognition using fuzzy BK subproduct inference mechanism. Nominated as the Best Student Paper Award at FUZZ-IEEE 2015.
*

#### A Novel Multimodal Communication Framework using Robot Partner for Ageing Population

D. Tang, B. Yusuf, J. Botzheim, N. Kubota and C.S. ChanExpert Systems with Applications

*
A new multimodal human-robot interaction framework to support elderly people in their daily life.
*

#### Fuzzy Human Motion Analysis: A Review

C.H. Lim*, E. Vats* and C.S. Chan (*indicates equal contribution)Pattern Recognition

*
First fuzzy review paper in human motion analysis with 252 references.
*

#### A Weighted Inference Engine based on Interval-valued Fuzzy Relational Theory

C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanExpert Systems with Applications

*
Study a high reliability inference engine that is rule-free, tolerate to uncertainty with interval-valued fuzzy sets and consider features weight. Tested on 3 publicly available medical data sets, i.e. Statlog Heart (Heart), Pima Indians Diabetes (Pima) and Wisconsin Diagnosis Breast Cancer (WDBC).
*

#### Color Video Denoising using Epitome and Sparse Coding

H.Y. Lee, W.L. Hoo and C.S. ChanExpert Systems with Applications

*
An unified framework to solve video denoising.
*

### 2014

#### Scene Image is Non-Mutually Exclusive - A Fuzzy Qualitative Scene Understanding

C.H. Lim, A. Risnumawan and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems

pdf | github | webpage

*
Proposed fuzzy qualitative rank classifier to handle natural scene classification.
*

#### Refined Particle Swarm Optimisation Method for Abrupt Motion Tracking

M.K. Lim, C.S. Chan, D. Monekosso and P. RemagninoInformation Sciences

pdf | dataset | webpage

*
Abrupt motion tracking using PSO. A new tracking dataset (MAMo) is proposed.
*

#### Crowd Saliency Detection via Global Similarity Structure

M.K. Lim*, V.J. Kok*, C.C. Loy and C.S. Chan (*indicates equal contribution)ICPR (Oral, Acceptance rate: 198/1409 ~ 14%.)

pdf | dataset | webpage

*
To identify and localize salient regions in a crowd scene, by transforming low-level features extracted from the crowd motion field into a global similarity structure.
*

#### Enhanced Random Forest with Image/Patch-Level Learning for Image Understanding

W.L. Hoo, T-K. Kim, Y. Pei and C.S. ChanICPR (Oral, Acceptance rate: 198/1409 ~ 14%.)

pdf | supp. material

*
Study discriminative RF codebook learning and generative classifier learning in image understanding. Tested on 15-scene (77.38%) and C-Pascal (85.29%) datasets.
*

#### Detection of Salient Regions in Crowded Scenes

M.K. Lim, C.S. Chan, D. Monekosso and P. RemagninoElectronics Letters

*
Employed temporal variations in the flow field of a crowd scene to automatically detect salient regions.
*

### 2013

#### PLSA-based Zero-Shot Learning

W.L. Hoo and C.S. ChanICIP

pdf | poster | webpage

*
A novel approach of zero-shot learning. Tested on PubFig (54.35%), CIFAR-100 (54.85%) and Caltech-256 (51.49%) datasets with 2 unseen class.
*

#### An Inference Engine Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy BK Subproduct

C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanFUZZ-IEEE (Oral)

*
Propose two enhancements on BK subproduct.
*

#### Fuzzy Action Recognition for Multiple Views within Single Camera

C.H. Lim and C.S. ChanFUZZ-IEEE (Oral)

*
A framework to model human action from different viewpoints within a single camera.
*

### 2007-2012

#### A Fusion Approach for Efficient Human Skin Detection

W.R. Tan, C.S. Chan, Y. Pratheepan and J. CondellIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2012

pdf | dataset | webpage

*
A hybrid model to detect human skin. A new skin detection dataset (Pratheepan) is proposed.
*

#### A Fuzzy Qualitative Approach for Scene Classification

C.H. Lim and C.S. ChanFUZZ-IEEE, 2012 (Oral)

*
A preliminary study on natural scene classification using fuzzy qualitative reasoning approach.
*

#### Logical Connectives and Operativeness of BK Sub-triangle Product in Fuzzy Inferencing

C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanInternational Journal of Fuzzy Systems, 2011

*
Examine BK sub-triangle product for medical expert system.
*

#### Fuzzy Qualitative Complex Actions Recognition

C.S. Chan, H. Liu and W.K. LaiFUZZ-IEEE, 2010 (Oral)

*
Complex action recognition using fuzzy qualitative reasoning. UIUC Action dataset is used for testing.
*

#### Fuzzy Qualitative Human Motion Analysis

C.S. Chan and H. LiuIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 2009

*
Study human motion analysis with fuzzy qualitative reasoning. Within it, a data-quantization process is proposed to relax the computational complexity in particle filter tracking algoithm. Tested on KTH and Weizmann datasets.
*

#### GMM-QNT Hybrid Framework for Vision-based Human Motion Analysis

C.S. Chan and H. LiuFUZZ-IEEE, 2009 (Oral)

*
A fusion between GMM-QNT for human motion analysis.
*

#### A Fuzzy Qualitative Approach to Human Motion Recognition

C.S. Chan, H. Liu, D.J. Brown and N. KubotaFUZZ-IEEE, 2008 (Oral)

*
A preliminary study on fuzzy qualitative reasoning for human motion analysis.
*

#### Recognition of Human Motion From Qualitative Normalised Templates

C.S. Chan, H. Liu and D.J. BrownJournal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 2007

*
To model human upper and lower limbs using qualitative normalised templates. Application in visual surveillance.
*

(most recent papers first)

#### Granular-based Dense Crowd Density Estimation

V.J. Kok and C.S. ChanMultedia Tools and Applications (in Press)

doi

*
Study crowd counting using the concept and principles of granular computing.
*

#### Numerical Solutions of Fuzzy Differential Equations by an Efficient Runge-Kutta Method with Generalized Differentiability

A. Ahmadian, S. Salahshour, C.S. Chan and D. BaleanuFuzzy Sets and Systems, 2018

doi

*
Study an extended fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to approximate the solutions of first-order fuzzy differential equations using a generalized characterization theorem.
*

#### How Deep Learning Extracts and Learns Leaf Features for Plant Classification

S.H. Lee, C.S. Chan, S. Mayo and P. RemagninoPattern Recognition, 2017

pdf | github | dataset | webpage

*
Study how deep learning can be used in plant classification. Two public leaf datasets - MalayaKew and Flavia are employed.
*

#### GrCS: Granular Computing Based Crowd Segmentation

V.J. Kok and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 2017

pdf | webpage

*
Study crowd segmentation using the concept and principles of granular computing.
*

#### Fractional Differential Systems: A Fuzzy Solution based on Operational Matrix of Shifted Chebyshev Polynomials and its Applications

A. Ahmadian, S. Salahshour and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 2017

*
Introduce a suitable way to approximate a fuzzy solution for linear FFDEs. As applications, it can be used for fractional differential equation models under uncertainty encountered in engineering and physical phenomena (i.e., viscoelasticity, oscillations, and resistor-capacitor (RC) circuits).
*

#### Early Detection of Human Actions - A Hybrid Approach

E. Vats and C.S. ChanApplied Soft Computing, 2016

*
Study a classifer that is capable to recognize human action when only partial action sample is seen.
*

#### Fuzzy Qualitative Human Model for Viewpoint Identification

C.H. Lim and C.S. ChanNeural Computing and Applications, 2016

*
A view-invariant human model based on Poisson and fuzzy qualitative reasoning.
*

#### Crowd Behavior Analysis: A Review where Physics meets Biology

V.J. Kok, M.K. Lim and C.S. ChanNeurocomputing, 2016

*
A crowd behavior analysis survey with 180 references.
*

#### Orthogonal Planar Search (OPS) for Coronary Artery Centerline Extraction

S. Tang and C.S. ChanSignal, Image and Video Processing, 2016

*
Investigation of orthogonal planar search for coronary artery centerline extraction from computed tomography angiography.
*

#### Zero-Shot Object Recognition System based on Topic Model

W.L. Hoo and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 2015

pdf | webpage

*
Zero-shot learning based on topic model. Result on AwA Dataset = 49.65%.
*

#### An Improved BK Sub-Triangle Product Approach for Scene Classification

E. Vats, C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanJournal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 2015

pdf | webpage

*
A preliminary study on early human action recognition using fuzzy BK subproduct inference mechanism. Nominated as the Best Student Paper Award at FUZZ-IEEE 2015.
*

#### A Novel Multimodal Communication Framework using Robot Partner for Ageing Population

D. Tang, B. Yusuf, J. Botzheim, N. Kubota and C.S. ChanExpert Systems with Applications, 2015

*
A new multimodal human-robot interaction framework to support elderly people in their daily life.
*

#### Fuzzy Human Motion Analysis: A Review

C.H. Lim*, E. Vats* and C.S. Chan (*indicates equal contribution)Pattern Recognition, 2015

*
First fuzzy review paper in human motion analysis with 252 references.
*

#### A Weighted Inference Engine based on Interval-valued Fuzzy Relational Theory

C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanExpert Systems with Applications, 2015

*
Study a high reliability inference engine that is rule-free, tolerate to uncertainty with interval-valued fuzzy sets and consider features weight. Tested on 3 publicly available medical data sets, i.e. Statlog Heart (Heart), Pima Indians Diabetes (Pima) and Wisconsin Diagnosis Breast Cancer (WDBC).
*

#### Color Video Denoising using Epitome and Sparse Coding

H.Y. Lee, W.L. Hoo and C.S. ChanExpert Systems with Applications, 2015

*
An unified framework to solve video denoising.
*

#### Scene Image is Non-Mutually Exclusive - A Fuzzy Qualitative Scene Understanding

C.H. Lim, A. Risnumawan and C.S. ChanIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 2014

pdf | github | webpage

*
Proposed fuzzy qualitative rank classifier to handle natural scene classification.
*

#### Refined Particle Swarm Optimisation Method for Abrupt Motion Tracking

M.K. Lim, C.S. Chan, D. Monekosso and P. RemagninoInformation Sciences, 2014

pdf | dataset | webpage

*
Abrupt motion tracking using PSO. A new tracking dataset (MAMo) is proposed.
*

#### Detection of Salient Regions in Crowded Scenes

M.K. Lim, C.S. Chan, D. Monekosso and P. RemagninoElectronics Letters, 2014

*
Employed temporal variations in the flow field of a crowd scene to automatically detect salient regions.
*

#### A Fusion Approach for Efficient Human Skin Detection

W.R. Tan, C.S. Chan, Y. Pratheepan and J. CondellIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2012

pdf | dataset | webpage

*
A hybrid model to detect human skin. A new skin detection dataset (Pratheepan) is proposed.
*

#### Logical Connectives and Operativeness of BK Sub-triangle Product in Fuzzy Inferencing

C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanInternational Journal of Fuzzy Systems, 2011

*
Examine BK sub-triangle product for medical expert system.
*

#### Fuzzy Qualitative Human Motion Analysis

C.S. Chan and H. LiuIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 2009

*
Study human motion analysis with fuzzy qualitative reasoning. Within it, a data-quantization process is proposed to relax the computational complexity in particle filter tracking algoithm. Tested on KTH and Weizmann datasets.
*

#### Recognition of Human Motion From Qualitative Normalised Templates

C.S. Chan, H. Liu and D.J. BrownJournal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 2007

*
To model human upper and lower limbs using qualitative normalised templates. Application in visual surveillance.
*

(most recent papers first)

### 2017

#### Total-Text: A Comprehensive Dataset for Scene Text Detection and Recognition

C.K. Ch'ng and C.S. ChanICDAR (Oral, Acceptance rate: 52/409 ~ 12.7%.), 2017

pdf | arXiv (extended ver.) | dataset

*
To facilitate a new text detection research, we introduce the Total-Text dataset, which is more comprehensive than the existing text datasets. Total-Text consists of 1555 images with more than 3 different text orientations, one of a kind.
*

#### HGO-CNN: Hybrid Generic-Organ Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Organ Plant Classification

S.H. Lee, Y.L. Chang, C.S. Chan and P. RemagninoICIP, 2017

pdf | poster | github | webpage

*
Introduce a hybrid generic-organ CNN, which takes into account both organ and generic information for plant classification. State-of-the-art results in PlantClef2015 with Image-centered score = 0.69 and Observation score = 0.717.
*

#### phi-LSTM: A Phrase-based Hierarchical LSTM Model for Image Captioning

Y.H. Tan and C.S. ChanACCV, 2016 (Acceptance rate: 143/590 ~ 24%)

pdf | arXiv (extended ver.) | poster

*
Build an image captioning system based on phrase.
*

#### A Deep Convolutional Network for Fine-art Paintings Classification

W.R. Tan, C.S. Chan, H. Aguirre and K. TanakaICIP, 2016

pdf | supp. material | poster | github | dataset

*
Preliminary study on artwork classification using AlexNet.
*

#### Deep-Plant: Plant Identification with Convolutional Neural Networks

S.H. Lee, C.S. Chan, P. Wilkin and P. RemagninoICIP, 2015 (Oral)

pdf | github | dataset | webpage

*
Study convolutional and deconvolutional network to understand plantation. A new leaf dataset (MalayaKew) is proposed.
*

#### Crowd Saliency Detection via Global Similarity Structure

M.K. Lim*, V.J. Kok*, C.C. Loy and C.S. Chan (*indicates equal contribution)ICPR, 2014 (Oral, Acceptance rate: 198/1409 ~ 14%.)

pdf | dataset | webpage

*
To identify and localize salient regions in a crowd scene, by transforming low-level features extracted from the crowd motion field into a global similarity structure.
*

#### Enhanced Random Forest with Image/Patch-Level Learning for Image Understanding

W.L. Hoo, T-K. Kim, Y. Pei and C.S. ChanICPR, 2014 (Oral, Acceptance rate: 198/1409 ~ 14%.)

pdf | supp. material

*
Study discriminative RF codebook learning and generative classifier learning in image understanding. Tested on 15-scene (77.38%) and C-Pascal (85.29%) datasets.
*

#### PLSA-based Zero-Shot Learning

W.L. Hoo and C.S. ChanICIP, 2013

pdf | poster | webpage

*
A novel approach of zero-shot learning. Tested on PubFig (54.35%), CIFAR-100 (54.85%) and Caltech-256 (51.49%) datasets with 2 unseen class.
*

#### An Inference Engine Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy BK Subproduct

C.K. Lim and C.S. ChanFUZZ-IEEE, 2013 (Oral)

*
Propose two enhancements on BK subproduct.
*

#### Fuzzy Action Recognition for Multiple Views within Single Camera

C.H. Lim and C.S. ChanFUZZ-IEEE, 2013 (Oral)

*
A framework to model human action from different viewpoints within a single camera.
*

#### A Fuzzy Qualitative Approach for Scene Classification

C.H. Lim and C.S. ChanFUZZ-IEEE, 2012 (Oral)

*
A preliminary study on natural scene classification using fuzzy qualitative reasoning approach.
*

#### Fuzzy Qualitative Complex Actions Recognition

C.S. Chan, H. Liu and W.K. LaiFUZZ-IEEE, 2010 (Oral)

*
Complex action recognition using fuzzy qualitative reasoning. UIUC Action dataset is used for testing.
*

#### GMM-QNT Hybrid Framework for Vision-based Human Motion Analysis

C.S. Chan and H. LiuFUZZ-IEEE, 2009 (Oral)

*
A fusion between GMM-QNT for human motion analysis.
*

#### A Fuzzy Qualitative Approach to Human Motion Recognition

C.S. Chan, H. Liu, D.J. Brown and N. KubotaFUZZ-IEEE, 2008 (Oral)

*
A preliminary study on fuzzy qualitative reasoning for human motion analysis.
*

#### Human Motion Sensing and Recognition: A Fuzzy Qualitative Approach

Authors: H. Liu, Z. Ju, X. Ji, C.S. Chan and M. KhouryPublisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

doi | preface

*
Synopsis: It consists of 281 pages, focus on the latest progresses made on human motion sensing and recognition, including 2D and 3D vision-based human motion analysis, hand motion analysis and view-invariant motion recognition, from the perspective of Fuzzy Qualitative (FQ) techniques, which provide practical solutions by properly balancing the systems effectiveness and efficiency.
*

### Members

#### Alumni

Dr. Mei Kuan Lim | 2012-17 | Lecturer at Monash University (Sunway) |

Dr. Sze Ling Tang | 2012-17 | |

Mujammil Ali Ali Sulthan | 2016 | Researcher at Gluerk Technologies |

Dr. Ven Jyn Kok | 2013-16 | Senior Lecturer at National University of Malaysia (UKM) |

Dr. Ali Ahmadian | 2014-16 | Associate Researcher at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) |

Dr. Wai Lam Hoo | 2011-16 | Senior Lecturer at University of Malaya (UM) |

Dr. Ekta Vats | 2013-16 | Postdoctoral at Uppsala University, Sweden |

Dr. Vembarasan Vaitheeswaran | 2014-16 | Assistant Professor at SSN College of Engineering, India |

Anhar Risnumawan | 2012-14 | Lecturer at EEPIS, Indonesia |

Dr. Chee Kau Lim | 2011-14 | Senior Lecturer at University of Malaya (UM) |

Dr. Chern Hong Lim | 2011-14 | Senior Lecturer at TAR Universty College (TARUC) |

Ravi Shekhar | 2013-14 | |

Wei Ren Tan | 2011-13 | Graduate Student at Shinshu University, Japan |